Social Icons

facebook rss feed email

Featured Posts

Karnali Bridge chisapani” width=

Karnali Bridge

The junction which connects beautiful farwest with remaining Nepal. This river(Karnali) is the Longest River of Nepal.

khaptad National park” width=

Khaptad Patan

Sangrila in earth, beautiful place in Bajura, Bajhang, Achham and Doti districts of Beautiful farwest of Nepal.

Dodhara chadani Jholunge Pul” width=

Mahakali suspension bridge(Dodhara-Chadani Jholunge Pul)

Bridge over Mahakali river, which connects 2 VDCs of Nepal (Dodhara and Chadani VDC) across Mahakali with whole Nepal, Length is 1496.5m.

suklafata wildlife reserve” width=

Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve of Nepal

Best known and most accessible Wildlife Reserve having large Swamp Deer Herds of Asia, and is invariable associated with the Royal Bengal Tiger and the great One-horned Rhinoceros both endangered species.

“tharus

Tharu Culture

Performing their own cultural dance.Tharus are the indigenous ethnic group who live in the Terai with a concentrated population in the middle and west of the country.

Airport in Dewal Bajhang farwestern Nepal” width=

Bajhang Airport(BJH)

Domestic Airport in Dewal Bajhang, farwestern Nepal.

bhuwa natch “ width=

Bhua naach

One of the cultural dance of Far West, Nepal. Which is started after victory of war in Western part of Nepal during unification of country. Which is mainly performed in Bajura,Bajhang & Achham.

Hope I catch enough fish for my family” width=

Hope I catch enough fish for my family

Old Tharu man fishing in a old canal.

A local porter from Far western region nepal” width=

A Porter in his way.

Life is hard but they enjoy it on their way. A local porter from Far western region, Nepal.

Boys playing cricket near Himalayas in Darchula.Winner will get yarshagumba from loser” width=

Crazy for Cricket.

Boys playing cricket near Himalayas in Darchula.Winner will get yarshagumba from loser.

Rana Tharu  singing hori song” width=

Never forget own Culture.

Rana Tharu women in their traditional attire singing hori song. Most of Rana Tharus are lives in southern part of Kanchanpur District.

Seti River farwest nepal”  width=

West Seti River.

Nowadays West Seti River is famous because of West Seti Hydroelectric Project(750 MW).

Shree Satyavadi Higher Secondary School Bajhang”  width=

School is the Temple of Education.

One of the oldest School of Nepal, Shree Satyavadi Higher Secondary School, Bajhang.

Goddess Ugratara temple”  width=

Ugratara temple

Goddess Ugratara is the deity to whom the temple of Ugratara is dedicated.

Saturday, February 9, 2013

Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve


Welcome to you in Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, Kanchanpur, Nepal
Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve of Nepal’s best-known and most accessible Wildlife Reserve having large Swamp Deer Herds of Asia, Shuklaphanta wildlife Reserve is invariable associated with the Royal Bengal Tiger and the great One-horned Rhinoceros both endangered species. The river offers a variety of experiences with the diverse interior and abundant wildlife. Forests, streams and rivers, lakes, and several large phantas (grasslands), for which the park is named, comprise the habit of the reserve. Sal trees dominate the forests, Khair-Sisso forests are found along the riverside areas.Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve.
The wildlife reserve is situated in the Kanchanpur district the extreme southwest of Nepal. The name of the reserve is derived from the largest of there grasslands, which is known as Sukla Phat. The reserve area is 305 sq.kms. The reserve shares a common boundary with the Indian State of Utter Pradeshin the South and west which is formed by the Mahakali river. The aquatic and terrestrial habitats of Shuklaphata Wildlife Reserve contain more than 665 plant species belonging to 438 genera and 118 families , which make Shuklaphata Wildlife Reserve as the highest species richness area, reported for any given protected areas in Terai. Of these, 2 species are endangered, 2 commercially threatened, 2 vulnerable, 1 rare and 1 insufficiently known .

Plant species under various IUCN threat categories:
FOREST:
Although Suklaphanta is comprised of Terai, Bhabar and Churiya, its vegetation can be broadly classified into forests, grassland, and aquatic habitat (wetlands). Although several variations in species association may lead to formation of many forest types, Suklaphanta forests are grouped into sal forest, and deciduous riverine forest.
    Swamp deer 
  • sal forest:- This climax vegetation type has Shorea robusta as the dominant species. Mature Sal stands up to 30 m in height. This vegetation can be further divided into lower plain sal and hill sal. Lower plain sal forest is in the south and hill sal forest in the north. Sal trees of the lower plain, are taller than the hill sal. In lower plain, sal dominates the canopy layer. Other associates of the canopy layer are Terminalia alata and Lagerstroemia parviflora. The canopy of hill sal forest is dominated by Shorea robusta with associates like Terminalia alata, Lagerstroemia parviflora and Terminalia bellirica. In some places, Pterocarpus marsupium may represent as canopy. The middle layer is dominated by Cleistocalyx operculatus, Buchanania latifolia, Mallotus philippensis and Careya arborea.
  • Deciduous riverine forest:-This forest type occurs in those areas subjected to annual flooding or elevated river floodplain. Broadly, six forest types occur in the Reserve.
          a) Trewia Forest:- Trewia nudiflora forests are found in the riversides, islands and the areas with the better soil moisture. The canopy height of this forest type is between 16 – 30 m. The coverage varies in different forest from 20% to 80%. The other associates of this forest type are Ehretia laevis, Syzygium cumini, Acacia catechu and Mallotus philippensis.
         b) Syzygium Forest :- In some moist areas, patches of Syzygium forest are found forming canopy at 18 – 20 m. The other scattered associates of this vegetation type are Mallotus philippensis, Ficus racemosa, Trewia nudiflora, Ehretia laevis and Acacia catechu.
        c) Mallotus Forest:- Areas close to rivers and other water-bodies, are dominated by Mallotus philippensis with canopy height of 15 m. Other associates of this forest type are Bauhinia malabarica, Cleistocalyx operculatus, Acacia catechu and Careya arborea. Very scattered Bombax ceiba trees are found in this vegetation type.
       d) Bet Forest:- The Calamus tenius, locally known as bet ghari, forms the shrub layer but dominates the vegetation. The bet canopy is formed at 6 m height because they climb trees and reach their canopy.
      e) Sisso Forest:- In riverine areas, Sisso forest forms its canopy at 20 m and dominated by Dalbergia sisoo. The other scattered species are Acacia catechu, Aegle marmelos, Trewia nudiflora, Mallotus philippensis and Adina cordifolia.
     f) Khair Forest:- Sandy areas, and river banks are dominated by Acacia catechu with a height of 20 m. Other associates of this vegetation type are Ehretia laevis, Mallotus philippensis, bodar, Butea monosperma, Trewia nudiflora, Syzygium cumini and Toona ciliata.

GRASSLAND
Grassland in Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve
Although the composition of vegetation varied in grassland with dominance types occurring as minimum as six types, grassland vertical strata suggested three types: 
1) Tall grassland primarily contained Species of Narenga, Saccharum and Themeda with phragmites in water-logged areas; 
2) Short grassland included mainly Imperata; and 3) Recently vacated land (extended grassland) had very little ground cover with Cyanodon dactylon. Classification of grasslands in shuklaphata Wildlife Reserve , are given below:
a) Themeda Type:- Themeda villosa attain a height of 5 m and occupies large areas of the grassland. Other associates are Vetivera zizanioides, Imperata cylindrica and Cynodon dactylon.
b) Siru Type:- Imperata cylindrica (vernacular name: siru) with a height of 1m, is much preferred by wild ungulates and highly in demand for thatching. Other associates are Vetivera zizanioides, Cynodon dactylon, and Setaria sp.
c) ChrysopoGoN Type:- Open areas that are subjected to either extensive grazing or recently vacated settlements, are dominated by ChrysopoGoN aciculatus with associates like Digitaria adscendens, Cyanodon dactylon, Oplismenus burmanii and herbs like Cannabis sativa seedlings, scattered Ageratum conyzoides.
d) Paspalum Type:- Areas under severe cattle grazing pressure, are dominated by short grass like Paspalum scrobiculatum. This grass is runner in habit and forms green mat on the ground. Other associated species are ChrysopoGoN aciculatus, Cynodon dactylon and herbs like Justicia procumbens, Oxalis corniculata.
e) Kans Type:- In sandy areas where sediments have been deposited by monsoon floods, Saccharum. spontaneum is dominant.
f) Munj Type:- Open areas of sal forest and also in some moist part of the grassland, are dominated by Saccharum bengalensis with a height up to 5m. Other associates are Imperata cylindrica, Themeda villosa and shrubs like Casearia graveolens, Asparagus racemosus, saplings of Shorea robusta, Terminalia alata and Cleistocalyx operculatus.

AQUATIC HABITAT
The Mahakali River and its tributaries flow in the west of the reserve. Also, several lakes, rivers and oxbow lakes are found. Prominent wetlands are Rani Taal, Sikari Taal, Kalikitch and many others. The aquatic vegetation includes floating species like Pistia stratiotes, Nelumbo nucifera, Nymphoides indica, Nymphoides hydrophyllum, Chara, red and green algae and blue-green algae, Persicaria barbata, Persicaria capitata, Persicaria glabra, PolyGoNum plebeium, PolyGoNum pulcherum and water side species like Equisetum diffusum, Dryopteris cochleata, and tall grass like Phragmites karka.
1) MAMMALS:-The diverse wildlife habitats of Shuklaphata Wildlife Reserve, which range from climax sal forest to wet grassland, support more than 43 mammals . Although the Reserve area is small, it is nationally as well as globally important. Two mammalian features of Shuklaphata Wildlife Reserve are so different that they set the Reserve as outstanding amongst all PAs of Nepal: 1) Shuklaphata Wildlife Reserve harbours the largest herds of swamp deer with 1,710 – 2,250 animals; 2) Of all PAs in Nepal, SWR has the highest no. of endangered species which include hispid hare, tiger, rhino, elephant, and swamp deer. In Shuklaphata Wildlife Reserve, 4 rhinos were initially released from Chitwan in 2000. One translocated female is now nursing a calf. In addition, a male rhino appeared in the Reserve about a few years back, which probably had moved in from Dudhwa National Park, India via Punarbaas of Dhangadi, Nepal. As any rhino population under 10 individuals is considered at high risk of local extinction, a plan to translocate 10 more rhinos from Chitwan, is under consideration which may enable Nepal to establish a third viable population of the one horned Asiatic rhino. This strategy is in accordance with the Greater One-horned Rhinoceros Conservation Action Plan for the Kingdom of Nepal. There are about 18 - 22 breeding adult tigers. Four tigers were poached in the last ten years. Since 1999, regular monitoring of tiger population using camera trap, is being conducted. As Shuklaphata Wildlife Reserve appears to have pivotal ecological role in the maintenance of several prominent wetlands and grassland, large endangered herbivores use this area extensively as well as intensively. Elephants are known to have their seasonal movements between Dudwa National Park and Shuklaphata Wildlife Reserve via Pilibhit because of existing forest areas in Nepal and India. For example, a herd of 22 elephants from India were observed in 1992. Fewer wild elephants from India still range in the Reserve seasonally. It has been reported that a resident herd of 5 elephants frequent the Reserve year round. Crop-related damages occur from the wild elephants and rhinos in the buffer zone particularly in Dodhara and Chandani. Within the Indian territories, nearby settlers from Lagga Bagga, Kurtyia Cober, Tatar Gunj, Gabia Colony and No.7 Basti, are notoriously known for their poaching activities in the Reserve. Recently, Shuklaphata Wildlife Reserve has been nominated as a site for MIKE (Monitoring of Illegally Killed Elephants) in Nepal, by CITES.

2) BIRDS:- The Reserve has the largest population of Bengal florican in Nepal. Several rare grassland bird species such as the swamp francolin, grass owl, rufous-rumped grassbird and striated grassbird occur. A total of 349 species of bird representing 54 families, are reported. Of these, 7 species are globally threatened species: swamp francolin, Bengal florican, sarus crane, white- rumped vulture, slender-billed vulture and lesser adjutant. Also, a total of 25 species of breeding birds that are at risk in Nepal, occur. When alarming decline in Gyps vulture populations in Nepal, India and Pakistan are being reported, long-billed vulture, slender-billed vulture and white-rumped vulture have remarkable presence in the Reserve. These three Gyps species are considered world's most threatened vultures. Both slender-billed vulture and long-billed vulture made 51 and 39 percent of 51 Gyps vultures that were observed in Shuklaphata Wildlife Reserve.

OTHER VERTEBRATES & INVERTEBRATES
Baseline information on fauna, particularly small mammals, reptiles, amphibian, insects, and butterflies are in want, which are essential for species conservation. The existing information on faunal diversity is limited to the hispid hare, swamp deer, tiger, elephant, and rhino. However, anecdotal reports suggest more than 35 butterfly species, 24 fish species, 5 species of amphibians, and 12 species of reptiles also occur.

List of Breeding birds that are at risk in Nepal.